Criminal Justice Administration, Terrorism, National Security, Classified Information


As a last step, racial and ethnic distinctions must be clarified. Programs and activities aiming at promoting understanding and respect for other races and ethnic groups are common in ethnic relations programs and activities. Sometimes the focus is on how a particular ethnic group treats and interacts with those participating in the program. There are opportunities to study and compare behavior in ethnically and racially varied situations, which may assist minimize oversimplification and stereotyping. It is possible that a better grasp of these realities will lead to a more nuanced discussion of concerns relating to ethnic diversity in schools. When it comes to dealing with ethnic problems, organizations should have procedures in place that ensure that all participants reflect the context’s ethnic, racial, and linguistic diversity and are structured to encourage equality of roles and cooperation amongst people from all backgrounds. The most well-documented way to reduce racial and ethnic hostility is to provide equal opportunities for people of all races and ethnicities. This is the most effective way to ensure that individuals of various backgrounds participate equally in a given activity. People’s beliefs regarding their roles in inter-ethnic activities might be influenced by stereotypes and practices of different groups, as well as poor experiences and prejudices. Cooperative interdependence amongst people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds is thus critical to ensuring that the community benefits from their efforts. It is best to prevent ethnically identifiable persons competing against each other in situations where ethnic competition is used to foster cooperation. Solutions to ethnic diversity should be developed with the participation of the general public and the government. Those in positions of power and influence often communicate more effectively via their deeds than their words. Participants in educational programs aimed at improving interethnic relations would want to know how the lessons they were meant to learn were applied by those responsible for placing them in this situation. Unless they have a history of discrimination problems that are readily apparent, ethnic relations initiatives will suffer if leaders are too busy to engage. There will be a lot of interest in whether or not the individuals in charge are living up to their promises to enhance justice and interethnic relations. They also want to know whether ethnically diverse candidates for higher jobs are aggressively recruited. Ethnic discrimination should be punished severely, but those who are committed to justice should be promoted and rewarded. Leaders of institutions and organizations must act as role models for their employees and members of the broader public so that they may show their commitment to advancing equality by treating all individuals equally. In order to address the challenges created by ethnic diversity, children must be included in the process from an early age. Those who are just starting out in the workforce require encouragement and reinforcement of inclusive behavior. It’s impossible to stress the significance of fostering positive relationships amongst individuals of different ethnicities. When it comes to assessment, early intervention is not enough. Ethnic issues and other types of bias and discrimination grow increasingly prevalent as people become older and experience more of them in their everyday lives. Every organization has an emphasis on interethnic collaboration, and new members are generally made aware of this. As part of the introduction, there may be opportunities for ethnic peace workshops or other activities. In certain cases, people may come to the realization that their commitment to a healthy and fair inter-ethnic interaction isn’t completely achieved when they learn to manage with ethnic disputes. Vaccination against some of the ethnic issues is not an easy task. We must monitor the living conditions of different ethnic groups and the general ethnic issues in society if we are to develop inter-community relations. Teaching ethnic equality and peaceful coexistence in schools and colleges is a good idea, but it should also be taught at these institutions themselves. Ethnic relations are generally handled by administrators and instructors at most educational institutions. Workshops and introductory courses are the most common methods used by universities. Workshops are often seen as ineffective by the public. Inter-committee relations may be improved by include educational opportunities in school curriculum and/or events in which organizations participate, according to conventional knowledge. Two important characteristics are required for the strategy to be successful in reducing the barriers provided by ethnic diversity. In the first place, the level of commitment varies from one school to the next. When it comes to connecting communities, there is a lack of expertise on how to best implement the sorts of experiences that have been proven effective. Intercultural interactions should thus be a primary concern for all parties concerned. Research of the differences and similarities between different ethnic groups is necessary. In efforts to promote interethnic relations, ethnic divisions are frequently accentuated while shared values and beliefs that may bring people together are disregarded. It is practically impossible to avoid oversimplification in the search for generalizations that can raise the sensitivity to diversity and stimulate a positive attitude to differences. Stereotyping, even if it is comprehensible, is a form of promoting further inter-ethnic relations methods that don’t deal with the entire nuances of intra-ethnic differences (Njogu&Ngeta, 2011). Interpersonal interactions, which are impacted by interpersonal connections, have consequences for understanding human traits and influencing the effect of language, gender, and social class. There are certain common features that should be transmitted to the various groups in society and organizations, regardless of the ethnicity of the persons involved. Because they believe they have a common ancestor, people of different ethnicities are less likely to have prejudices and other problems caused by ethnic variety.

Organizations and institutions should take into consideration the challenges experienced by people who are bicultural or multilingual. Most Americans, particularly those of European ancestry, adhere to the idea that the United States is a “melting pot” (Brems, 2013). Despite their desire to become fully integrated into the mainstream white society, many immigrants and people of color harbor resentment against those who insist on maintaining aspects of their cultural identity. Reducing problems caused by ethnic variety may be accomplished via assimilation. It is a rejection of the truth that may be found in America’s variety to expect integration (Njogu&Ngeta, 2011). In order to be accepted by society, some say, people must choose a particular cultural identity. A lack of respect for folks with multicultural and bicultural identities is shown by laws and practices that force individuals to identify with one ethnic line.

Finalization of the theoretical framework and methodological approach Ethnic conflict theories are often at the center of discussions on the difficulties of ethnic variety, and this is especially true in this instance. In the context of race and ethnicity, the conflict theory may be applied to issues of gender, class, and education. In the United States, conflict theory focuses on current and historical tensions between whites and members of other ethnic groups. Attempts are made in this theory to explain the underlying causes of disputes between dominant ethnic groups and their minority or immigrant populations. The second strategy to coping with ethnic diversity’s challenges is to be more interactive. Ethnicity and race are required for the symbolic ties..

The Future:

A cross-sectional study design will be used to examine many factors over a short period of time.

Methods of Data Gathering:
The research will use secondary references such as the print media and collection of primary data from questionnaires from the relevant audience.

Topic 4: The Extent to which Secret Evidence Affects the National Security as a Whole?

The classified intelligence is an exceptionally helpful resource in the governmental fight against the terrorism. The information obtained in the process plays a significant role in helping security agency prevent the occurrence of terror attacks rather than deal with the aftermath of such activities which are devastating. However, the use of secret evidence also presents a challenge in the sense that it undermines democracy which in turn affects national security. It is, therefore, necessary to ensure that appropriate measures are taken to ensure that the use of secret evidence in the process of justice administration does not undermine democracy and national security.

Objectives of the Study:

To determine the extent to which secret evidence undermines democracy and national security and supranational regulations.

Operational Definitions:

Supranational regulations – regulations that go beyond the powers and boundaries of a country.

Problem Statement:

Classified intelligence may provide the crucial information needed to prevent and deal with terror activities. It is also necessary to ensure that the process would not eventually result into more harmful consequences for the nation’s welfare.


The inappropriate use of secret evidence may present challenges associated with foreign policies with will also have negative implications on national security.

Research Philosophy:

Utilizing secondary reference materials and direct interviews from the relevant sources.

Research Approach:

The study will focus on developing strategies to evaluate the success of past terrorism cases using classified information in comparison with the constitutional provisions for human rights.

Research Strategy:

The study will focus on qualitative research method in order to give answers to the research questions.

Time Horizon:

The research will employ cross-sectional research method that will focus on different variables within a particular time frame.

Data Collection Methods:

The research will use secondary references such as the print media and collection of primary data from questionnaires from the relevant audience.

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