Language Attitude toward Gulf Pidgin Arabic

Order

GPA-related slang expressions

1. Define and contrast related ideas of attitude

Discussion of attitudes in general and attitudes toward language are covered in this section. Also included is a comparison of attitude with a variety of related topics from social psychology and other social studies.

As the Latin and Italian origins of the term “attitude” (aptitude+”atto”) reveal, it may also be interpreted as “aptitude for action”. That is what it means when someone says they have a “attitude” (Baker, 1992). A posture or position in a picture or a play has historically been associated with the definition of the term (Baker, 1992). Although the word’s original meaning is closely linked to its historical one, it is still used in current English, according to Cambridge Dictionary’s definition (Cambridge Dictionary).

Today, the term “attitude” has additional meanings in British and American English, some of which have a negative connotation. As an example: “If you say that someone has attitude, you suggest that they are highly confident and want everyone to notice them,” says the narrator (Cambridge Dictionary). If you mention that someone has an attitude you suggest that the individual looks uninterested in helping or politeness” in casual American English use of the word “application” (Cambridge Dictionary). To understand both meanings, one must have strong beliefs, sentiments, and basic views in one’s head that influence behavior, especially by making it more egocentric and focused on one’s own goals and objectives, ultimately leading to a unique style of acting. There are no negative or positive connotations attached to the phrase in scientific discourse, but the literature shows a similar relationship between individual meanings and behaviors in the context of the term.

Abstract hypothetical structure, construct or model are all terms used by Baker in his book Attitudes and Language (1992). This theory is used by social psychologists to explain “the direction and permanence of human behavior” (Baker, 1992). Although attitudes may vary over time, they can only be described as long-lasting and stable if seen from a long-term perspective (Baker, 1992). Another characteristic of attitude is that it is difficult, if not impossible, to observe directly. Scientists can only learn about it by keeping a close eye on the exterior behavior and tracking the changes in that behavior (Baker, 1992).

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The word “humanitarian” has been defined in a variety of ways by scientists in humanitarian fields, including Allport’s definition (1935). Attitude, according to his definition, may be defined as “a mental or neurological state of readiness, structured by experience, having a directive or dynamic impact on the individual’s behavior to all objects and circumstances with which it is associated” (Baker, 1992). As an undetectable mental state that manifests itself via human activity, this term emphasizes the latent aspect of attitude.

If attitudes are “self-descriptions or self perception,” Bem (1968) describes them as “self-descriptions or self-perceptions,” which needs the subject to be aware of their own attitudes, whereas Allport’s doesn’t. To paraphrase McGuire (1985), “things of thought on judging dimensions” are referred to as “attitudes” (Baker, 1992). It is via this definitional variation that a new field of research methodology and methods for assessing attitudes may be explored. Alternatively, attitude may be defined as “a inclination to react favorably or unfavorably to an item, person, institution, or event,” according to Ajzen (1988). (Baker, 1992). This one, unlike McGuire’s, requires simply a positive or negative attitude variation and, as a result, does not assume measurement.

The hierarchical model of attitude gives a study of the internal structure of the “attitude” idea itself, while the definitions above concentrate on the person, the location of attitude in his head, and outward displays of attitude. Plato’s views suggest that attitudes have three components: cognitive, emotive and action-ready (Baker, 1992). To put it another way, cognitive and emotive aspects of an item are considered separately. For example, a person’s attitude may be differentiated from many other ideas that only involve one or two components. The word “attitude” has a wide usage in common English in meaning “a feeling or opinion about something or someone, or a way of behaving that is caused by this” (Cambridge Dictionary). This sense applicable in everyday speech is close to specific scientific one; however, for this research, it is not strict enough, as mix attitude, opinion, feeling, and way of behaving. In comparison to the hierarchical model, it contains all its parts, but does not provide details on their integrity and required the presence of three parts (use “or” operator instead of “and”).

GPA-related slang expressions

1. Define and contrast related ideas of attitude

Discussion of attitudes in general and attitudes toward language are covered in this section. Also included is a comparison of attitude with a variety of related topics from social psychology and other social studies.

As the Latin and Italian origins of the term “attitude” (aptitude+”atto”) reveal, it may also be interpreted as “aptitude for action”. That is what it means when someone says they have a “attitude” (Baker, 1992). A posture or position in a picture or a play has historically been associated with the definition of the term (Baker, 1992). Although the word’s original meaning is closely linked to its historical one, it is still used in current English, according to Cambridge Dictionary’s definition (Cambridge Dictionary).

Today, the term “attitude” has additional meanings in British and American English, some of which have a negative connotation. As an example: “If you say that someone has attitude, you suggest that they are highly confident and want everyone to notice them,” says the narrator (Cambridge Dictionary). If you mention that someone has an attitude you suggest that the individual looks uninterested in helping or politeness” in casual American English use of the word “application” (Cambridge Dictionary). To understand both meanings, one must have strong beliefs, sentiments, and basic views in one’s head that influence behavior, especially by making it more egocentric and focused on one’s own goals and objectives, ultimately leading to a unique style of acting. There are no negative or positive connotations attached to the phrase in scientific discourse, but the literature shows a similar relationship between individual meanings and behaviors in the context of the term.

Abstract hypothetical structure, construct or model are all terms used by Baker in his book Attitudes and Language (1992). This theory is used by social psychologists to explain “the direction and permanence of human behavior” (Baker, 1992). Although attitudes may vary over time, they can only be described as long-lasting and stable if seen from a long-term perspective (Baker, 1992). Another characteristic of attitude is that it is difficult, if not impossible, to observe directly. Scientists can only learn about it by keeping a close eye on the exterior behavior and tracking the changes in that behavior (Baker, 1992).

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The word “humanitarian” has been defined in a variety of ways by scientists in humanitarian fields, including Allport’s definition (1935). Attitude, according to his definition, may be defined as “a mental or neurological state of readiness, structured by experience, having a directive or dynamic impact on the individual’s behavior to all objects and circumstances with which it is associated” (Baker, 1992). As an undetectable mental state that manifests itself via human activity, this term emphasizes the latent aspect of attitude.

If attitudes are “self-descriptions or self perception,” Bem (1968) describes them as “self-descriptions or self-perceptions,” which needs the subject to be aware of their own attitudes, whereas Allport’s doesn’t. To paraphrase McGuire (1985), “things of thought on judging dimensions” are referred to as “attitudes” (Baker, 1992). It is via this definitional variation that a new field of research methodology and methods for assessing attitudes may be explored. Alternatively, attitude may be defined as “a inclination to react favorably or unfavorably to an item, person, institution, or event,” according to Ajzen (1988). (Baker, 1992). This one, unlike McGuire’s, requires simply a positive or negative attitude variation and, as a result, does not assume measurement.

The hierarchical model of attitude gives a study of the internal structure of the “attitude” idea itself, while the definitions above concentrate on the person, the location of attitude in his head, and outward displays of attitude. Plato’s views suggest that attitudes have three components: cognitive, emotive and action-ready (Baker, 1992). To put it another way, cognitive and emotive aspects of an item are considered separately. For example, a person’s attitude may be differentiated from many other ideas that only involve one or two components.
I have consolidated the data for analysis in this research through an interview with laborers using GPA in their everyday life and at work. The interviews aimed at looking at two main issues: the social factors that led to the emergence of Gulf Pidgin Arabic (GPA) as well as the attitudes towards GPA from the unskilled/semi-skilled migrant laborers’ viewpoint.

Ten questions in all were used in the semistructured one-on-one interviews:

The first thing I want to know is how you learned Arabic when you were in Saudi Arabia. Do you think that was hard or easy? Have the individuals in your neighborhood been of any assistance to you? Find out whether you’ve ever had anything nice or terrible happen to you.

Do you think most of the people in this town are kind, kind, and easy to get along with? Do you have any Saudi friends? Why?

Do you live with Saudis or in an area with a high concentration of Saudis? What if I’m in a neighborhood with a lot of other expats?

When engaging with the local population, do you have any concerns about how you’ll be received? (Have you encountered any problems as a result of your interactions?)

Has the local population ever exposed you to any kind of racism/discrimination, poor treatment, or degrading behavior? Is there anything you’ve seen or heard that was racist?

What do you think of your ability to communicate in Arabic? You might also try speaking like a native to the area if you like. Is it really that significant?

Question #7: Do you converse in Arabic with locals solely, or do you also speak it with visitors from other countries?

What do Saudis think of your ability to speak Arabic? Do you find it difficult to get along with them? For each favorable or bad experience in comprehension, use a probe to find out.

Do you think that the locals here assist you in learning/understanding the language of the country? Or, maybe, to talk more like them Whether you’re a tourist or a resident, do they treat you the same? Is there a difference, and if so, why?

In your opinion, is there any difference between the Arabic you know/speak and the Arabic used in your community? What’s the difference between these two? Why?

There were two main topics that were discussed throughout the interviews. The first question was about how the speakers felt about the locals, and the second was about how they felt about GPA. Based on the AMTB technique, below is a set of questions.

Twenty-one workers were interviewed, and their names were classified using the first letter of their names and an interview index number. I utilized a dictaphone with the interviewees’ consent in addition to tagging in a notebook to capture a transcript of the interview. Using this technique instead of merely labeling in a notebook resulted in a higher quality of information. GPA is where the first interview is held. It was my colleague’s expertise of GPA that confirmed the accuracy of the decoded contents.

After decoding and validating the materials, I translated them into English in order to speed up the next analysis and to be able to share this information with those who are unfamiliar with GPA. Other materials are used in my analysis. The responses of different respondents (coded with letter and figure) are combined rather than the responses of each individual to several questions. The responses given by all participants to a few questions are so similar that I draw a generalization. There aren’t any predetermined key phrases.

Thematic content analysis is the approach of choice for interview analysis (TCA). A descriptive presentation of qualitative data is provided by this approach. In addition to interview transcripts (as in the case of this study), additional texts on the subject, photographs, video, and other types of data may be used as initial data for analysis. A high-quality TCA depicts the thematic content of research materials based on the identification of common themes in these texts’ textual content. Analytical techniques and methodologies in qualitative research, such as thematic content analysis, are at the center of this study’s focus.

Analyzing data requires an impartial viewpoint and close attention to detail on the part of the researcher. Making lists of frequent topics in the textual resources is one of the most important tasks. These acts are mostly intended to convey the common viewpoints of interviewees.

It’s a good idea to come up with theme names that include terms from the participants. Themes should be organized in a way that is consistent with the rest of the content. A minimal degree of author interpretation was advised in the process of identifying and classifying topics. However, the researcher’s interpretation of the themes may be included in the Discussion.

TCA’s drawback is the inadequacy of its analysis and description. Some qualitative researchers argue that this approach “does not constitute an analysis” (Anderson, 2007, p.2). Nevertheless, the process of locating and structuring “identified meaning units in relation to context” (Anderson, 2007) for a specific participant and a group of participants makes the TCA close to “Case Study, Discourse Analysis, Ethnography, Grounded Theory, Heuristic Research, Intuitive Inquiry, Narrative Methods and variant derivative methods” (Anderson, 2007). (Anderson, 2007).

When combined with Heuristic Research or Intuitive Inquiry, TCA may provide inter-subjective interpretation of data based on the intuition of the researcher. It is possible to employ TCA for objective analysis while inter-subjective meanings and interpretations are provided afterwards in the Discussion phase of the Intuitive Inquiry approach (Anderson, 2007). In this case, TCA is the best approach for working with objective data, and it may be used to the interview data.

Microsoft Word is used as the primary technical tool in this research, despite the fact that several TCA programs include particular features for automatic grouping and tagging of texts. Paper documents are also an important part of my profession, since they are simple to alter and mark up.

The following steps in the TCA process are as follows:

Prepare by printing or copying as many copies of the working materials as I need (in the case of this study interview transcripts).

Using a set of specified criteria to identify and highlight the most relevant explanations of the research subject.

Text units of varied length are marked inside these regions. A shift in connotation or a rift in continuity are both grounds for dissociation. Incorporating all necessary information yet not overproducing.

Making comparable units by cutting or duplicating them and then assembling them. New Word documents make it easy to do this task. The coding of individual components.

Assembling comparable units with phrases/keywords that were originally used in highlighted resources is a fifth step. constructing a list of categories Has the local population ever exposed you to any kind of racism/discrimination, poor treatment, or degrading behavior? Is there anything you’ve seen or heard that was racist?

What do you think of your ability to communicate in Arabic? You might also try speaking like a native to the area if you like. Is it really that significant?

Question #7: Do you converse in Arabic with locals solely, or do you also speak it with visitors from other countries?

What do Saudis think of your ability to speak Arabic? Do you find it difficult to get along with them? For each favorable or bad experience in comprehension, use a probe to find out.

Do you think that the locals here assist you in learning/understanding the language of the country? Or, maybe, to talk more like them Whether you’re a tourist or a resident, do they treat you the same? Is there a difference, and if so, why?

In your opinion, is there any difference between the Arabic you know/speak and the Arabic used in your community? What’s the difference between these two? Why?

There were two main topics that were discussed throughout the interviews. The first question was about how the speakers felt about the locals, and the second was about how they felt about GPA. Based on the AMTB technique, below is a set of questions.

Twenty-one workers were interviewed, and their names were classified using the first letter of their names and an interview index number. I utilized a dictaphone with the interviewees’ consent in addition to tagging in a notebook to capture a transcript of the interview. Using this technique instead of merely labeling in a notebook resulted in a higher quality of information. GPA is where the first interview is held. It was my colleague’s expertise of GPA that confirmed the accuracy of the decoded contents.

After decoding and validating the materials, I translated them into English in order to speed up the next analysis and to be able to share this information with those who are unfamiliar with GPA. Other materials are used in my analysis. The responses of different respondents (coded with letter and figure) are combined rather than the responses of each individual to several questions. The responses given by all participants to a few questions are so similar that I draw a generalization. There aren’t any predetermined key phrases.

Thematic content analysis is the approach of choice for interview analysis (TCA). A descriptive presentation of qualitative data is provided by this approach. In addition to interview transcripts (as in the case of this study), additional texts on the subject, photographs, video, and other types of data may be used as initial data for analysis. A high-quality TCA depicts the thematic content of research materials based on the identification of common themes in these texts’ textual content. Analytical techniques and methodologies in qualitative research, such as thematic content analysis, are at the center of this study’s focus.

Analyzing data requires an impartial viewpoint and close attention to detail on the part of the researcher. Making lists of frequent topics in the textual resources is one of the most important tasks. These acts are mostly intended to convey the common viewpoints of interviewees.

It’s a good idea to come up with theme names that include terms from the participants. Themes should be organized in a way that is consistent with the rest of the content. A minimal degree of author interpretation was advised in the process of identifying and classifying topics. However, the researcher’s interpretation of the themes may be included in the Discussion.

TCA’s drawback is the inadequacy of its analysis and description. Some qualitative researchers argue that this approach “does not constitute an analysis” (Anderson, 2007, p.2). Nevertheless, the process of locating and structuring “identified meaning units in relation to context” (Anderson, 2007) for a specific participant and a group of participants makes the TCA close to “Case Study, Discourse Analysis, Ethnography, Grounded Theory, Heuristic Research, Intuitive Inquiry, Narrative Methods and variant derivative methods” (Anderson, 2007). (Anderson, 2007).

When combined with Heuristic Research or Intuitive Inquiry, TCA may provide inter-subjective interpretation of data based on the intuition of the researcher. It is possible to employ TCA for objective analysis while inter-subjective meanings and interpretations are provided afterwards in the Discussion phase of the Intuitive Inquiry approach (Anderson, 2007). In this case, TCA is the best approach for working with objective data, and it may be used to the interview data.

Microsoft Word is used as the primary technical tool in this research, despite the fact that several TCA programs include particular features for automatic grouping and tagging of texts. Paper documents are also an important part of my profession, since they are simple to alter and mark up.

The following steps in the TCA process are as follows:

Prepare by printing or copying as many copies of the working materials as I need (in the case of this study interview transcripts).

Using a set of specified criteria to identify and highlight the most relevant explanations of the research subject.

Text units of varied length are marked inside these regions. A shift in connotation or a rift in continuity are both grounds for dissociation. Incorporating all necessary information yet not overproducing.

Making comparable units by cutting or duplicating them and then assembling them. New Word documents make it easy to do this task. The coding of individual components.

Assembling comparable units with phrases/keywords that were originally used in highlighted resources is a fifth step. constructing a list of categories do not have roots in the text is not recommended. On the other stages, this categories may be revised.

6. Identifying missing categories based on obvious information that is not presented in materials.

7. The process of units’ identification, grouping and labeling piles of units should be repeated until all materials are checked. The same rule of preference for labeling words original for text over researcher’s own categories working here.

8. Next part of editing includes redistributing of units within categories, subdividing, collapsing and relabeling of categories.

9. After some brake, (2-3 days) TCA requires rereading of original interview undependably of ready categories and units.

10. Reconsidering existing categories and units with a special attention to their moderate size, redistribution, subdivision/ collapsing, relabeling.

11. Evaluation of a total number of categories, in a case of their overproduction, step back to the stage 10.

12. Repeating 11 stages for every additional material, in case of this study an interview transcript.

13. Reading TCA of all transcripts separately and construction of a common list of themes and categories for material as a whole. Subdividing, collapsing, relabeling, and controlling the number of resulting categories.

14. Rereading list of resulting categories after 2-3 days break, evaluation of their quantity and covering the overall sense of study materials.

15. First 14 stages should be repeated until the quality of categories is satisfying (Anderson, 2007).

Section 4. The findings emerging from the data

Social gap

Local people are helpful in studying language especially in the working sphere where they have a direct interest in efficient communication with laborers. Sometimes the studying happens by children. These speakers have no other alternatives but to speak Arabic with laborers.

However, the easier way to study speech gradually is by “bilingual” people of the same origin as they can give better descriptions with an intermediation of their native tongue and better understand problems of newbies.

As contacts of laborers mostly limited by their national community and only purpose to study Arabic comes from work, the highest possible level of language proficiency limited by communicative tasks laborers has at work (sometimes it is one phrase for verification of standard action).

From this preference of studying the language by non-native speakers by people of the same origin comes application of pidgin variation instead of standard Arabic.” I spoke to them without knowing if it is right or wrong, they just speak that way.”

Laborers point that most of the people are good in the meaning of their honest and law-abiding behavior, they see fewer burglars in Saudi Arabia than at home countries, most of the people are not aggressive toward foreigners. The communication between locals (employers) and foreigners (laborers) goes mostly smooth; however, some of the locals may be more conflict that is dependable on particular characters. The higher is the level of language proficiency the easier is the understanding and fewer conflicts on this base are possible.

The social gap between local people and laborers exist as laborers mostly serving locals and has a submissive position. “Some Saudis are arrogant and do not think that those foreigners are equal human beings.” However, most of Saudis, by interviewees’ opinion are friendly on the distance the laborers use with them.

It is important to notice that contacts of laborers with Saudis are superficial. From position, “I am only here to work” comes limitation of contacts with locals; laborers do not make friends around them. Exclusion is close friendly relations at work, but they have no continuation outside the work. Foreigners do not visit Saudi’s homes; they may have phone contacts and get some help by locals or just exchange greetings, talk a bit, but no more. In some special cases, Saudis invite foreigners to their weddings.

Among reasons for limited communication, respondents name lack of time and money, as well as the priority of earning money over spending them with friends. The other respondent points to separation within society by nationality, income or strong influence of cultural difference: “Here foreigners and Saudis are separated. There is no problem, but he is a Saudi, and I am a foreigner, how can we be friends?”; “Saudis are with Saudis.”; “No, making friends with Saudis does not happen here, they think I am poor.“; “There is a difference between a foreigner and a Saudi. Just a difference that is why I do not make any friends.” One more reason is an issue with differentiation within the other culture good and bad people, especially when you do not have a long contact with them by some natural way (work, sponsorship).

Laborers live often in families they work for; others more often live with foreigners only then with Saudis (separation by the rent price). Their opinions on the existence of discrimination or racism in the country divided, some see it when others not. In addition, the foreigner’s behavior (active work, few social life) prevent them from meeting racism and discrimination personally.

In total, two main reasons of social gap existence is an arrogance of some Saudis and cultural difference with foreigners and the difference in income level and related lifestyle.

Social factors for pidgin emergence

In pidgin and creole studies, scientists point two main groups of factors for language varieties emergence, social and structural. Winford divides social factors in contact languages into ones working on macro and micro (individual) levels. Factors of macro level: demography, socio-cultural homogeneity/ differentiation of the bilingual group, its size, the existence of sub-groups in the community with different native languages, political and social relations between sub-groups, in several sub-groups dominance of bilinguals with specific speech behavior, stereotyped attitudes toward languages of sub-groups, attachment of special status.

Factors of micro level: an ability to divide tongues in speech, do not mix them, skills of verbal expression, proficiency in communication, assignment of specific speech to some interlocutors and topics, ways to learn tongues, stereotypes, and attitudes toward languages (Winford, 2013).

On example of GPA, this factors and conditions are next. The size of the bilingual group is great, that is 50-95% of labor force in the Gulf region. The community is clearly divided by an application of original Arabic and GPA variety of a language or some other Asian native language in internal communication within the group. Demographic facts that support GPA formation are a low level of foreigners’ education and a high number of female laborers (comparatively worse education than for the male population) (Avram, 2014).

Social relations between subgroups are very limited; the group of foreign laborers has a submissive position. Within groups of Bangladeshis, Indians, Pakistanis, and other national groups there is a prevalence of bilingual individuals having specific speech dependently in their native tongue. Stereotyped attitudes toward GPA and Arabic are for first like to speech for work only, the language of poor immigrants not understanding real Arabic, and the second the tongue for natives, the one giving opportunities, however irrelevant for immigrants social status.

On the micro level, most of the foreign speakers have problems with keeping two dialects apart, as result, they use grammar constructions or sounds from their native tongue in their variety of Arabic. Relative proficiency in Arabic is in average low and in the native language is high. Application of Arabic (GPA) limits by work and small talks, while native tongues can be applied to their ethnic group for many topics. Learning native speech is a natural process in early child development while learning Arabic (GPA) is artificial, it happens mostly through friends from the same ethnic group or through the process of work. Attitude toward real Arabic is as to the language irrelevant for work, toward GPA as a required minimum that makes life in the country comfortable enough and allows to make money here.

Social attitude toward pidgin

Laborers think on the required level of the Arabic language that it can be medium or low. They understand and speak well enough to work that is the most important. “To know the words that are related to your work is enough. It is not necessary to learn everything, just knowing the language of my job is enough.” They find unnecessary speaking like Saudis.

Main situations they need Arabic is work and grocery store, ability to understand is more important than speak for many of them working at homes. Others learn limited vocabulary related to professional functions: “I have worked as a ‘barber’ for 12 years, how can I know the Arabic for other jobs?”, “I do not know Arabic, but now I know so then I know the way. It is not a problem to know only a little Arabic.”, “For example, a taxi driver knows how to go this way, or the traffic or go to a certain road or left and right, but not much.”, “My Arabic is good and enough to speak/understand a doctor or a nurse”.

On the other hand, there are respondents who find learning more Arabic having sense and reasonable for them personally:

“Speaking more like Saudis is better though, I do not know how to speak well, but if I knew it would be great.”

“If someone likes the language, he should learn to speak like Saudi people”,

“Yes, it is not too bad, I wish that I could speak more like Saudis, I want to learn how to speak well, but now it’s okay.”,

“But it is not enough, if I learn more, I would know more.”

However, this variant of attitude toward Arabic of Saudis is rare. Most of the respondents find pidgin enough for their work, live in the country, and do not have a reason learn more. They use this variant of language both with locals and with foreigners.

The pidgin variety is understandable for locals, on their side they prefer to talk to foreigners on simplifies and very clear Arabic, not the same way as between each other. That w

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