Marx’s Account

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Introduction
There have been a number of philosophical debates on the best way to explain the idea of equality. Social, economic, and political aspects of equality have been investigated in an effort to define the optimum circumstances for a peaceful society. Marx, Kant, Hegel, and Mill are just few of the thinkers who have made significant contributions to the debate over equal treatment. Despite the fact that these philosophers have articulated ideal circumstances that make it easier to achieve equality, their unique opinions and arguments diverge fundamentally when it comes to the elements that decide whether equality exists or not.

Three Philosophers on Equality

As a humanist, Kant believes that political equality can only be maintained if a legitimate government is in place to defend and safeguard the citizens’ inherent liberties. As a result, the government’s role in assisting people’s basic right to freedom is complicated by other freedoms and rights. Government, its institutions, and its agents must treat everyone equally according to Kant’s theory of equality. As a result, the political and economic climate should not benefit certain people at the cost of others (Rauscher 2012). Because the constitution guarantees equal treatment for everyone regardless of their political or social connections, individuals should not be discriminated against based on their political or social views. Kant, unlike Mill, takes a broader view of the country’s social challenges, not only the equality between the sexes (Rauscher 2012). As a result, his arguments for equality are founded on human rights. People have the right and want to be happy, hence Mills says that equality in people’s abilities to achieve pleasure is necessary (Brink 2014). Mills is notable for her emphasis on gender equality and maintains that both sexes deserve equal treatment. Because of this, women deserve the same rights, freedoms, and liberties as their male counterparts. An unbalanced society is the result of men and women being viewed as equal in social terms, particularly in the workplace (Thomas 2005). Gender equality acknowledges that women are as as capable as men, if not more so, of accomplishing their goals. Men and women should be given equal access to the social, economic, and political arenas, according to Mills.

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Considering that gender does not restrict a person’s capacity to execute a job or to lead others towards social and economic advancement, I believe Mills’ claims were well-supported. Mills’ claim is supported by today’s societal dynamic, which shows that women are capable of doing the same things as males, if not better.

Hegel asserts that “freedom can only develop only as the fruit of an unending quest for ethical equality with God” (Gammon 1996, p.315). A harmonious society, according to Hegel, results from the establishment of moral and ethical equality among all members of society. As a result, everyone is considered as an equal human being and has equal access to possibilities in life. For equality to be feasible, individuals must have a sense of moral and ethical fairness, which is a difficult concept to grasp. Moral or ethical fairness is not universally shared in everyday social interactions since people are dynamic and unpredictable.

The many arguments for social equality put out by Marx, on the other hand, are based on his emphasis on the need of developing a social and economic dynamic in which all people in society are treated equally. Many of Marx’s ideas are aimed at resolving the issues of economic, social, and political equality. In his opinion, society and the different elements that promote equality in society are not limited to a single viewpoint.

Inequality in Marx’s Theory of Marxism There have been a number of philosophical debates on the best way to explain the idea of equality. Social, economic, and political aspects of equality have been investigated in an effort to define the optimum circumstances for a peaceful society. Marx, Kant, Hegel, and Mill are just few of the thinkers who have made significant contributions to the debate over equal treatment. Despite the fact that these philosophers have articulated ideal circumstances that make it easier to achieve equality, their unique opinions and arguments diverge fundamentally when it comes to the elements that decide whether equality exists or not.

Three Philosophers on Equality

As a humanist, Kant believes that political equality can only be maintained if a legitimate government is in place to defend and safeguard the citizens’ inherent liberties. As a result, the government’s role in assisting people’s basic right to freedom is complicated by other freedoms and rights. Government, its institutions, and its agents must treat everyone equally according to Kant’s theory of equality. As a result, the political and economic climate should not benefit certain people at the cost of others (Rauscher 2012). Because the constitution guarantees equal treatment for everyone regardless of their political or social connections, individuals should not be discriminated against based on their political or social views. Kant, unlike Mill, takes a broader view of the country’s social challenges, not only the equality between the sexes (Rauscher 2012). As a result, his arguments for equality are founded on human rights. People have the right and want to be happy, hence Mills says that equality in people’s abilities to achieve pleasure is necessary (Brink 2014). Mills is notable for her emphasis on gender equality and maintains that both sexes deserve equal treatment. Because of this, women deserve the same rights, freedoms, and liberties as their male counterparts. An unbalanced society is the result of men and women being viewed as equal in social terms, particularly in the workplace (Thomas 2005). Gender equality acknowledges that women are as as capable as men, if not more so, of accomplishing their goals. Men and women should be given equal access to the social, economic, and political arenas, according to Mills.

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Every subject and topic is covered by our custom academic writing services.

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Considering that gender does not restrict a person’s capacity to execute a job or to lead others towards social and economic advancement, I believe Mills’ claims were well-supported. Mills’ claim is supported by today’s societal dynamic, which shows that women are capable of doing the same things as males, if not better.

Hegel asserts that “freedom can only develop only as the fruit of an unending quest for ethical equality with God” (Gammon 1996, p.315). A harmonious society, according to Hegel, results from the establishment of moral and ethical equality among all members of society. As a result, everyone is considered as an equal human being and has equal access to possibilities in life. For equality to be feasible, individuals must have a sense of moral and ethical fairness, which is a difficult concept to grasp. Moral or ethical fairness is not universally shared in everyday social interactions since people are dynamic and unpredictable.

The many arguments for social equality put out by Marx, on the other hand, are based on his emphasis on the need of developing a social and economic dynamic in which all people in society are treated equally. Many of Marx’s ideas are aimed at resolving the issues of economic, social, and political equality. In his opinion, society and the different elements that promote equality in society are not limited to a single viewpoint.

Inequality in Marx’s Theory of Marxism Marx’s arguments were based on the view that wealth, resources, life prospects and power are unevenly distributed in society. For instance, prior to 2009, the world economy was deteriorating, and people were facing various economic challenges. The wealthiest person in the United States in 2004 had more than five times of what the bottom-half of the people in the wealth distribution graph owned. Research studies indicate that the United States has the highest forms of inequality across the globe (Sypnowich, 2003, p. 33).

Political structures have a major role to play when it comes to inequality. Incidentally, political systems contribute towards the establishment of collusion and oligopolies through tax laws and regulations. In view of the existing inequality systems, political institutions are in the hands of the people who benefit from inequality; therefore, widening the inequality problem and expanding the gap between the rich and poor in the community.

Karl Marx strongly opposed the system of inequality that has continued to persist in society. Equality is not only a political notion but a social and economic one as well. Marx attempted to eliminate inequality in society through the establishment of various principles that are summarized in 10 points on social, economic and political equality in society (Marx 1848). Marx developed communist ideals that focused on eradication of social, economic, and political inequity among the various classes in the community. Marx establishes two fundamental ideas. The first one is that equality is seen from a political perspective. The second idea is that class abolition forms a basis for establishing a real meaning to proletarian demand when it comes to equality. The demand in question is developed through precisely expressing the proletarian aspirations.

Political and Economic Factors

Marx develops his idea on the fact that equality is driven by several political factors that result in bourgeois equality as revealed by the law. In view of Marx’s understanding, bourgeois equality is an example of a procedural form of equality. This means that equality is required by various factors that determine the law and order. Marx argued that the legal system should not have the capacity to provide some estates or parties with more privileges in comparison to the others. This is a resemblance of the feudal-aristocratic political order as it was presented in Europe. Marx suggested that all the members of the society had the right to equality despite their status in the society. This includes the independence of benefiting from the opportunities and resources in the world system, including the freedom of living comfortable from a person’s property.

Equal justice is also a political factor that influences equality from Marx’s perspective. Marx holds an assumption that equality before the law, especially in contract establishments must be implemented through the use of free and equal economic agents to create equal values for the parties involved. This is a capital surplus requirement; consequently, it is apparent that the labor power offered to capitalists forms a basis for the innate human rights that determine equality in the society. The innate rights in question include equality, liberty, and the right to property. Evidently, Marx does not consider the act of labor exploitation as unjust or one that violates the right to equality. In Marx’s perspective, rights are interrelated to legal and political institutions (Marx 1848). Through the implementation of Marx’s historical materialistic theory, it is apparent that the political and legal institutions are simply legal-political superstructures that come out of a real foundation within an existing form of production (Vries 2015, p. 70).

Considering Marx’s sentiments on just distribution, it is clear that all societal members should obtain an equal right when it comes to labor distribution. He regards this as the only just way of engaging in labor distribution. Marx indicates that within a society, an economic structure and its cultural development will always be held at a higher position than any right (Marx 1848). As a result, any insured distribution that determines any means of consumption is regarded as an end-result of the distribution of the actual production conditions. In cases where production aspects are distributed as if they were under a capitalist mode of production, then the established means of distribution noted in the current world results in an automatic manner. Hence, distribution standards implemented in determining justness in labor distribution are only applicable within a capitalist society. In the determination of wealth distribution, Marx utilizes the term profit, price, and value.

Equal standard defects in a political system are also a political determinant of equality. Apparently, according to the justice system, all resources must be equally distributed though the question of equal standard to be implemented in this case still arises. However, to ascertain the standard of measuring equality, it is clear that various considerations must be recognized. For instance, income, wealth, and opportunity are some of the factors to consider. In the context of inequality, it is apparent that cases such as poor education, lack of control, and poor health among others will always arise. Through equality, such factors may not always be the case as a result of balancing resources among all the societal members.

According to Marx, there is no standard that determines the demand for justice. The philosopher acknowledges the fact that there is the likelihood that an equal standard can be applied in cases where the bourgeois notion of equality and rights are apparent. Marx further depicts that equal standard determines the existence of rights in its particular nature. Unequal individuals can be measured through the implementation of equal standards that are undertaken from an equal point of view for all parties. Marx acknowledges the fact that there are several defects in the system that can be avoided. According to him, rights must be unequal other than being equal. However, this is not evident during the first phase of the communist society. According to Marx, if terms such as justice and right were not implemented, then, equality is likely to be in existence for all.

In view of Marx’s critique of the political notion that determines equality in the society, equality within the bourgeois society means equality in the political system and laws and the bourgeois economy (Wolf 2015). Economic distribution on aspects such as education reform, tax policy, and land reform besides other measures require the implementation of laws for effective distribution in a fair manner. Marx opposes this as he depicts that such rights will only be administered based on the political identity of the people. As a result, the aspect of fairness arising from equality will no longer be a resultant feature of such an action. Further, Marx outlines that the political state and the civil society are two different aspects that never agree based on the fact that the political state opposes the civil society before prevailing over it.

Therefore, a bourgeois capitalistic society is established where a set of powers is established over human beings. Therefore, the people are deprived of their freedom and equal right since they will not have the requisite freedom and rights to control their lives other than through state coercion. Economic aspects result in class development within the society. By taking class into consideration, various forms of oppression arise therefore depicting inequality on a different scale. According to the philosopher’s perception, people from the higher class will always show individual egoistic interests that will drive the persons from the lower class to individual sacrifices that will give rise to inequality.

Personal View

I consider Marx’s account to promote a better understanding of equality. The philosopher separates the political lives of human beings and that the real social life to explain how equality is perceived. According to him, conceptions such as right, equality, and justice are simply political structures that do not express the aspirations of an individual within a free society. As a result, the identified conceptions are not adequate in the explanation of equality as provided by other philosophers.

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